Abstract: It is said that “the Romanian is born poet”. And so it is,Romanian Engineers who Contributed to the Development of Global Aeronautics – Part I Articles but we could say rather that “the Romanian is born and an engineer”, having deeply embedded himself, the vocation of the builder, the innovator, the inventor. The great cathedrals, the beautiful monasteries built, or even the churches and churches (built or wooden) clearly show this vocation. After centuries, the “Voronec blue” still retains its vivid colors, even on the outer walls, beaten by rain, snow and wind. Suveica, the loom of war, the potter’s wheel, the water and windmills, the musical instruments, the wells or the fountains, the agricultural tools, the traditional Romanian houses with porch, are only some proofs of the folk craftsmanship (engineering) over time. Ever since the beginnings of civilization on today’s territory of Romania, the inhabitants of these lands have been pioneers in the creation and have thought of things that others have found much later. Henri Marie Coanda (June 7, 1886 – November 25, 1972) was an Academician and Romanian engineer, aviation pioneer, physicist, inventor, inventor of the reaction engine and discoverer of the effect that bears his name. The first “Coanda” attested in the village of Strehaia was in 1630, Vldoianu Coanda. From the same source (Strehaia City Hall), we learn that Matei Coanda was the protector of Iancu Jianu, the defensive hood of the orphans. Henri Coanda was born in Bucharest on June 7, 1886, being the second child of a large family (Henri had four brothers and two sisters, a total of seven children). His father was General Constantine Coanda, a former mathematics professor at the National School of Bridges and Highways in Bucharest and former Prime Minister of Romania for a short period of time in 1918. His mother, Aida Danet, was the daughter of French physician Gustave Danet. Even from childhood, the future engineer and physicist was fascinated by the miracle of the wind, as he will later remember. Henri Coanda was first a pupil of the Petrache Poenaru School in Bucharest, then of St. Sava High School in 1896 where he attended the first three classes, after which, at 13, he was sent by his father who wanted to guide him towards his career Military High School in Iasi, 1899. He graduated high school in 1903, receiving the rank of major sergeant and continuing his studies at the School of Artillery, Genius and Marine Officers in Bucharest.
Keywords: Romanian Engineers, Development of Global Aeronautics, Aerospace, Aeronautics, Energy.
It is said that “the Romanian is born poet”. And so it is, but we could say rather that “the Romanian is born and an engineer”, having deeply embedded himself, the vocation of the builder, the innovator, the inventor.
The great cathedrals, the beautiful monasteries built, or even the churches and churches (built or wooden) clearly show this vocation. After centuries, the “Voronec blue” still retains its vivid colors, even on the outer walls, beaten by rain, snow and wind. Suveica, the loom of war, the potter’s wheel, the water and windmills, the musical instruments, the wells or the fountains, the agricultural tools, the traditional Romanian houses with porch, are only some proofs of the folk craftsmanship (engineering) over time (Petrescu, 2016).
Ever since the beginnings of civilization on today’s territory of Romania, the inhabitants of these lands have been pioneers in the creation and have thought of things that others have found much later.
Apolodor Bridge in Damascus is one of the ancient techniques of Romania. It was built between 102 and 105 AD by Christ of Emperor Trajan, Roman architect and constructor of Greek-Syrian origin, Apolodor (from Damascus) and “united” the Roman Empire with Dacia. The bridge was 1,135 meters long and 18 meters wide and was made of stone masonry with superstructure and oaken parapets. Among the last components were two small viaducts, also executed with stone masonry bolts and at each end of the bridge, above the grate, there was an impressive portal. One foot of this bridge is still preserved today in Drobeta Turnu-Severin.
Constantin Brancusi (born February 19, 1876, Hobita, Gorj – March 16, 1957, Paris) was a Romanian sculptor with overwhelming contributions to the renewal of the language and the plastic vision in contemporary sculpture. One of his most famous works is “The Infinite Column”, which he made with the engineer Georgescu Gorjan.
The one who put into practice what Constantin Brâncu_i did on paper was the engineer ^tefan Georgescu Gorjan. The Infinity Column has a metal core, tubular cornier profiles and steel flats, assembled in the workshop.
The construction has three sections. The top section is just bumpy. In the main section, Gorjan also used rivets and concrete was poured into the column. The foundation of the column is 5 meters deep and is made in steps. The column was metalized by spraying brass wire.
Nicolae Vasilescu-Karpen (born December 10, 1870, Craiova – March 2, 1964, Bucharest) was a Romanian scientist, engineer, physicist and inventor. He has carried out important pioneering work in the field of elasticity, thermodynamics, remote telephony, electrochemistry and civil engineering. Member of the Romanian Academy.
In 1909, he proposed for the first time in the world, through a note addressed to the Paris Academy of Sciences, the use of high-frequency carrier currents for long distance cable telephony. He made the Karpen pile, which works exclusively using the warmth of the environment.
After Professor I. Solomon, President of the French Physical Society, Vasilescu-Karpen, “invented the combustion chamber half a century before people came to the Moon for it.”
Nicola TESLA (10 July 1856 – 8 January 1943).
The great scholar Nikola Tesla was Romanian. He was a Romanian-born Istron and called him Nicolae Teslea, a Serb-Croatian citizen, descended from Romanian parents (Macedonian Romanians from Banat, or “Alexandro-Romanians” as they are also said to Romanian citizens of Macedonian ethnicity, or istro-Romanian, the istriotians come from the Croatian area of Serbia, from the Istrian Peninsula, situated in the north of the Adriatic Sea, the area was historically conquered and re-conquered. After first belonging to the Hunters, it passed to the West Roman Empire, was plundered by the Goths and Longobardi, annexed to the French kingdom, subject to the Carinthian dukes, then to Meran, Bavaria, after which he passed by the patriarch of Aquileia and belonged to the Republic of Venice and then passed under the power of the Austro-Hungarian Empire of the Habsburgs, with an interruption in the time of Emperor Napoleon who has been annexing it for a while. After the First World War he came under Italian protection and after World War II it was annexed by Serbia, when Tito, with the support of the Russian Communists, created the Serbian Yugoslav Empire. Several years after the “communist camp” broke down, the Croats returned to the island. Among the istriot communities, there are also the Istro-Romanians coming from Banat, Transylvania and Timoc).
Nicolae Teslea, or shortened Nicola Tesla (as it is generally known to Americans where the universal genius Nicola has remained and spent most of his life, making it difficult to pronounce “Teslea”), is considered the inventor of the generator alternating current and uncovered cableless power transmission. It is attributed to the transmission of energy through monophase, biphasic, polyphase alternating currents and transmission of non-wired energy by electromagnetic waves (oscillations) in the industrial alternating currents (102-109 [Hz]) band, overlapping band with radio frequencies (the radio band being even more extensive than that of alternative industrial currents).
A scientist and prolific inventor of electronics and radiotechnika, the discoverer of the spinning magnetic field (simultaneously with the Italian Galileo Ferraris, 1847-1897), Tesla invented both the biphasic and polyphase alternating electric currents and studied the high-frequency current. He built the first two-phase asynchronous motors, the electric generators, the high-frequency electric transformer and so on. In atomic, he researched the atomic nucleus fission, with the help of the high voltage electrostatic generator and was also a pioneer of nuclear power based on nuclear fission reactions. (Einstein was contacted and visited personally by his research in this field). By working permanently in industrial bands, Tesla has inevitably given over radio waves whose frequencies overlap with those of alternating currents.
Even though Marconi made the first radio broadcasts over the ocean, a little before Tesla, yet at the basis of his achievements were all the patents and works of Tesla, which Marconi had studied in detail. Tesla is the first and foremost builder of the world’s first and largest radio stations. In 1899, Tesla builds a large 200kw radio station in Colorado, conducts wireless telegraphy transmissions over 1,000km and manages to get 12 million volts of volumes to produce the first artificial lightning (lightning).
He drives the first unmanned ship by radio, from a distance to a public demonstration on the ocean, in New York.
Transmits concentrated energy through long-distance electromagnetic waves, the energy it uses to power remote consumers or remote control.
Tesla deals with natural energy, the production of artificial earthquakes based on huge energies using very low frequency waves (Tesla is the first to accurately determine the resonance frequency of our planet), acceleration of nuclear particles to very high energies and targeting them or microwaves concentrated in beam (deadly rays) capable of reaching and destroying a target at a great distance (airplane, rocket, ship, etc.).
He proposes to build a defensive shield to defend America, but even the planet, if needed (the current US defense shield of the Earth is a continuation of his work). It imagines, presents and designs wireless audio-video transmissions (but was too early to implement them massively, technologies were a long way from discovering it; the pieces were then lamps and tubes, there were no chips or integrated circuits, not even transistors).
We can certainly believe that Tesla is actually the true “Parent of Informatics” (Petrescu, 2016).
Methods and Materials
Henri Marie Coanda (June 7, 1886 – November 25, 1972)
Academician and Romanian engineer, aviation pioneer, physicist, inventor, inventor of the reaction engine and discoverer of the effect that bears his name.
The first “Coanda” attested in the village of Strehaia was in 1630, Vldoianu Coanda. From the same source (Strehaia City Hall), we learn that Matei Coanda was the protector of Iancu Jianu, the defensive hood of the orphans.
Henri Coanda was born in Bucharest on June 7, 1886, being the second child of a large family (Henri had four brothers and two sisters, a total of seven children). His father was General Constantine Coanda, a former mathematics professor at the National School of Bridges and Highways in Bucharest and former Prime Minister of Romania for a short period of time in 1918. His mother, Aida Danet, was the daughter of French physician Gustave Danet (Petrescu, 2016).
Even from childhood, the future engineer and physicist was fascinated by the miracle of the wind, as he will later remember. Henri Coanda was first a pupil of the Petrache Poenaru School in Bucharest, then of St. Sava High School in 1896 where he attended the first three classes, after which, at 13, he was sent by his father who wanted to guide him towards his career Military High School in Iasi, 1899. He graduated high school in 1903, receiving the rank of major sergeant and continuing his studies at the School of Artillery, Genius and Marine Officers in Bucharest.
Although many remarkable soldiers were in his family, he considered the military career as mediocre and had the desire to become an engineer. Following the voice of conscience, he left for Germany in 1904-1905 and enrolled at the Royal University – Technische Hochschule Charlottenburg, near Berlin, where he obtained the title of mechanical engineer, then attended university courses in Liège (Belgium) and the School Upper Electricity from Montefiore (Italy), where he obtained his degree in Electrical Engineering Specialist.
In 1908 he returned to the country and was an active officer in the 2nd Artillery Regiment. Due to his nature and inventive spirit, who did not agree with military discipline, he sought and obtained approval to leave the army, after which, taking advantage of the reclaimed freedom, took a long journey by car on the Isfahan – Tehran – Tibet route. On his return to France, he enrolled in the Upper Aeronautics and Construction School, newly established in Paris, 1909, whose graduate becomes the next year in 1910 as the head of the first aeronautical engineer’s promotion.
After completing his studies he worked at the Nice sites, led by the famous engineer Gustav Eiffel. The Ph.D. in Engineering has been very successful in Charlottenburg. With the support of engineer Gustave Eiffel and scientist Paul Painlevé, who helped him get the necessary approvals, Henri Coanda performed the aerodynamic experiments and built the first reactive propulsion aircraft in Joachim Caproni’s bodywork, a reaction plane, without a propeller, conventionally called Coanda-1910, which he presented at the second International Air Salon in Paris 1910.
During a flight attempt in December 1910 at Issy-les-Moulineaux airport near Paris, Henri Coanda’s escapee was out of control because of his lack of experience, he hit a wall at the edge of the take-off land and it set on fire. Fortunately, Coanda was projected from the airplane before the impact, choosing only the fear and a few minor contusions on his face and hands. For a while, Coanda has abandoned experiments due to the lack of interest from the public and scholars of the time.
Between 1911 and 1914 Henri Coanda worked as technical director at the Aviation Factories in Bristol, England and built high-performance propellers of his own design. In 1912, one of them (a bimonthly aircraft project – until then the planes had a single engine) won the first prize at the International Aviation Contest in England (Petrescu, 2016).
By manufacturing the apparatus called Bristol-Coanda, the plant has become one of the world’s largest airplane manufacturing plants, selling its appliances in Germany, Italy, Spain and even Romania.
In the following years, he returns to France. In the years 1914-1918, Henri Coanda worked at Saint-Chamond and SIA-Delaunay-Belleville in Saint-Denis. During this period he designs three types of aircraft, the most famous of which is the Coanda-1916 reconnaissance plane, with two propellers close to the tail of the aircraft.
Coanda-1916 is similar to the Caravelle transport plane, whose design actually took part. It gives life to a car-powered car powered by a reaction engine and a first aerodynamic train in the world (Petrescu, 2016).
In 1926, Henri Coanda, in Romania, puts in place a device for the detection of liquids in the soil, used mainly for petroleum prospecting.
In 1934, he obtained a French patent for process and device for deviating a stream of fluid flowing into another fluid, which refers to the phenomenon called today the “Coanda Effect”, consisting in the deviation of a stream of fluid flowing through along a convex wall, a phenomenon first observed by him in 1910, on the occasion of the test of the engine with which his reaction plane was equipped.
This effect has and still has precious applications in flight technology today. Thus, the most modern flight machines use the Coanda effect for improved flight sustainability at low speeds and for increased comfort and safety.
In the picture below there is a modern super heavy designed by Coanda (the C-17 Globemaster III) (Petrescu, 2016).
And the Hercules C4 models use the Coanda effect today.
McDonnell Douglas YC-15 also uses the Coanda effect to make a comfortable trip at low speeds.
NOTAR helicopters have replaced the classic tail along with the classic rotor with a tail designed according to the Coanda effect.
Several aircraft, especially the Boeing YC-14 (the first modern type to exploit the effect), were built to take advantage of this effect by turbofan mounted on the top of the wing to provide a rapid flow of fluids besides fuselage, balance stability and better ship dynamics even at low speeds (Petrescu, 2016).
This discovery led Coanda to major applicative research on aerodynamic hypersurance, sound attenuators and more. Coanda has been directly and indirectly involved in the development of various secret projects in the USA, Canada and the United Kingdom since the Second World War (the funds received for the completion of these strictly secret projects have even increased over the period cold war).
Canada “Avro VZ-9 Avrocar” was a VTOL aircraft developed by Avro Aircraft Ltd. (Canada) as part of a secret US military project in the early years of the Cold War.
Avrocar was designed to exploit the effect of Coanda to provide lift and traction from a single “turbo-engine” and blowout from the edge of the disk-shaped aircraft to provide extreme and quick (instantaneous) handling of the VTOL to greatly increase its performance.
In the air, he would even sow a flying saucer.
Two prototypes were built as “proof-of-concept” testing vehicles for a more advanced USAF fighter and also for the US Army (tactical combat aircraft).
In the flight test, Avrocar proved to have some unresolved problems in the traction force, but also some stability problems, so the number of ships built was very limited and later the project was canceled in September 1961 (Petrescu, 2016).
Through the history of the program, the project was mentioned by a number of different names (Other Projects). Avro referred to efforts as a Y project, with individual vehicles, known as Spade and Omega. The Y-2 project was later funded by the US Air Force, which referred to it as the WS-606A, the 1794 project and the Bug Silver project. When the US Army joined the efforts to complete the AVRO project, the project got its final name “Avrocar” and the name “VZ-9” for a part of the US VTOL VTOL projects on the VZ series.
Avrocar was the end result of a series of Blue Sky research projects designed by designer Jack Frost, who joined AVRO Canada in June 1947 after working previously with Coanda for several British companies. He was with Havilland in 1942 and worked together on Havilland de Hornet, Havilland Vampire and Havilland the Swallow and he was the chief designer for supersonic models. At Avro Canada, he worked on Avro CF-100 before creating a research team known as the “Special Projects Group” (better known as the GSP). First of all, Frost has created a special team of smart engineers and then has created a new job. Initially arranged in the “Penthouse” of the administration building, the GSP was then moved to a structure opposite the Schaeffer building, which was secured with maximum security (guards, locked doors and special cards for each pass, etc.). However, the GSP also operated in a separate, specially designed hangar, far from any potential viewers, experiments being done together only with other AVRO teams (who were also working on similar projects).
At that time, Frost was particularly interested in designing reaction engines and ways to improve the efficiency of the compressor without sacrificing the simplicity of turbine engines. He discovered Frank Whittle’s reversed flow and was also interested in the new ways of “cleaning.” This led him to design a new type of engine that sent the flames directly off the outer edge of the centrifugal compressor, pointing outward like the spokes of a wheel. The power of the compressor was obtained from a new turbine-like type with a centrifugal fan, unlike the most typical propulsors (such as the turbine), thus causing the compressor to use gears rather than a shaft. The resultant engine thus had no conventional pushing axis, being arranged in the shape of a large disk, for which Frost referred to it as a “rinse engine.” The thrust came out (gushing) all around the motor, which had problems in trying to adapt the engine to a typical aircraft (Aversa et al., 2017a-e, 2016a-o; Berto et al., 2016a-d; Mirsayar et al., 2017; Petrescu and Petrescu, 2016a-c, 2013a-d, 2012a-d, 2011a-b; Petrescu, 2012a-c, 2009; Petrescu and Calautit, 2016a-b; Petrescu et al., 2016a-c).
At the same time, the aerospace industry as a whole has